LoRa WAN

LoRaWAN

LoRa
LoRa Module with antenna and SPI wires attached.jpg
A LoRa module
Developed bySemtech
Connector typeSPI/I2C
Compatible hardwareSX1278
Physical range10km+

LoRa (Long Range) is a low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) protocol developed by Semtech. It is based on spread spectrum modulation techniques derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology.[1] It was developed by Cycleo of Grenoble, France and acquired by Semtech, the founding member of the LoRa Alliance.[2]

Features[edit]

LoRa uses license-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency bands like 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe), 915 MHz (Australia and North America) and 923 MHz (Asia). LoRa enables long-range transmissions (more than 10 km in rural areas) with low power consumption.[3] The technology covers the physical layer, while other technologies and protocols such as LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) cover the upper layers. It can achieve data rate from 27 Kbps to 0.3 Kbps depending upon the spreading factor.[4]

In January 2018, new LoRa chipsets were announced, with reduced power consumption, increased transmission power, and reduced size compared to older generation.[5]

LoRa devices have geolocation capabilities used for trilaterating positions of devices via timestamps from gateways.[6]

LoRa and LoRaWAN permit long-range connectivity for Internet of things (IoT) devices in different types of industries.[7]

Range extenders for LoRaWAN are called LoRaX.

LoRa PHY[edit]

LoRa uses a proprietary spread spectrum modulation that is similar to and a derivative of chirp spread spectrum (CSS) modulation. The spread spectrum LoRa modulation is performed by representing each bit of payload information by multiple chirps of information. The rate at which the spread information is sent is referred to as the symbol rate, the ratio between the nominal symbol rate and chirp rate is the spreading factor (SF) and represents the number of symbols sent per bit of information.[1] LoRa can trade off data rate for sensitivity with a fixed channel bandwidth by selecting the amount of spread used (a selectable radio parameter from 7 to 12). Lower SF means more chirps are sent per second; hence, you can encode more data per second. Higher SF implies fewer chirps per second; hence, there are fewer data to encode per second. Compared to lower SF, sending the same amount of data with higher SF needs more transmission time, known as airtime. More airtime means that the modem is up and running longer and consuming more energy. The benefit of high SF is that more extended airtime gives the receiver more opportunities to sample the signal power which results in better sensitivity.[8]

In addition, LoRa uses forward error correction coding to improve resilience against interference. LoRa's high range is characterized by high wireless link budgets of around 155 dB to 170 dB.[9]

LoRaWAN[edit]

Since LoRa defines the lower physical layer, the upper networking layers were lacking. LoRaWAN is one of several protocols that were developed to define the upper layers of the network. LoRaWAN is a cloud-based medium access control (MAC) layer protocol but acts mainly as a network layer protocol for managing communication between LPWAN gateways and end-node devices as a routing protocol, maintained by the LoRa Alliance.

LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and system architecture for the network, while the LoRa physical layer enables the long-range communication link. LoRaWAN is also responsible for managing the communication frequencies, data rate, and power for all devices.[10] Devices in the network are asynchronous and transmit when they have data available to send. Data transmitted by an end-node device is received by multiple gateways, which forward the data packets to a centralized network server.[11] The network server filters duplicate packets, performs security checks, and manages the network.[citation needed] Data is then forwarded to application servers.[12] The technology shows high reliability for the moderate load, however, it has some performance issues related to sending acknowledgements.[13]

Version history[edit]

  • January 2015: 1.0[14][15]
  • February 2016: 1.0.1[16]
  • July 2016: 1.0.2[17]
  • October 2017: 1.1, adds Class B[18]
  • July 2018: 1.0.3[19]

LoRa Alliance[edit]

The LoRa Alliance is a 501(c)(6)[20] association created in 2015 to support LoRaWAN (long range wide-area network) protocol as well as ensure interoperability of all LoRaWAN products and technologies. This open, nonprofit association has over 500 members.[21] Some members of the LoRa Alliance are IBM, Everynet, Actility, MicroChip, Orange, Cisco, KPN, Swisscom, Semtech, A2A Smart City SPA, Bouygues Telecom, Singtel, Proximus and Cavagna Group.[22] In 2018, the LoRa Alliance had over 100 LoRaWAN network operators in over 100 countries.[23] The Alliance is administered by the VTM Group in Beaverton, Oregon.[24] Geoff Mulligan was its chairman until 2018, when Donna Moore became the CEO and chairwoman.[25]

Deployments of LoRa technology[edit]

See also[edit]

  • DASH7 - a networking stack for LoRa
  • IEEE 802.11ah – non-proprietary low-power long-range standard
  • CC430 - an MCU & sub-1 Ghz RF transciever SoC
  • NB-IoT
  • LTE Cat M1
  • Helium Systems - a proprietary protocol system based on similar technology
  • MIoTy - Sub-GHz LPWAN technology for sensor networks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "LoRa Modulation Basics" (PDF). Semtech. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-07-18. Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  2. ^ "Semtech Acquires Wireless Long Range IP Provider Cycleo". Design And Reuse. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  3. ^ Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Juan Ballesta-Viñas; Maria-Dolores Cano; Antonio F. Skarmeta (2018). "Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions". Sensors. 18 (3): 772. doi:10.3390/s18030772. PMC 5876541. PMID 29510524.
  4. ^ Adelantado, Ferran; Vilajosana, Xavier; Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Martinez, Borja; Melia-Segui, Joan; Watteyne, Thomas (2017). "Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN". IEEE Communications Magazine. 55 (9): 34–40. doi:10.1109/mcom.2017.1600613. hdl:10609/93072. ISSN 0163-6804. S2CID 2798291.
  5. ^ Corporation, Semtech (2018-01-08). "Semtech Enables IoT of the Future with Next Generation LoRa Platform". GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  6. ^ Fargas, Bernat Carbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal. "GPS-free Geolocation using LoRa in Low-Power WANs" (PDF). DTU Library.
  7. ^ Ram, Prashant (2018-08-07). "LPWAN, LoRa, LoRaWAN and the Internet of Things". Coinmonks. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  8. ^ Qoitech. "How Spreading Factor affects LoRaWAN device battery life". The Things Network. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  9. ^ Mohan, Vivek. "10 Things About LoRaWAN & NB-IoT". blog.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  10. ^ "LoRaWAN For Developers". www.lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  11. ^ "A Comprehensive Look At LPWAN For IoT Engineers & Decision Makers". www.link-labs.com. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  12. ^ LoRa Alliance (2015). "LoRaWAN: What is it?" (PDF).
  13. ^ Bankov, D.; Khorov, E.; Lyakhov, A. (November 2016). "On the Limits of LoRaWAN Channel Access". 2016 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT): 10–14. doi:10.1109/ent.2016.011. ISBN 978-1-5090-4553-2. S2CID 44799707.
  14. ^ "LoRaWAN Specification" (PDF). lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  15. ^ Version 1.0 of the LoRaWAN specification released.
  16. ^ "LoRaWAN Specification" (PDF). lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  17. ^ "LoRaWAN Specification" (PDF). lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  18. ^ "LoRaWAN™ 1.1 Specification" (PDF). lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  19. ^ "LoRaWAN 1.0.3 Specification" (PDF). lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  20. ^ Brad Biddle (7 May 2019). "Linux Foundation is Eating the World". SSRN 3377799. Many other organizations formed following this same basic template: incorporation as a mutual benefit non-profit corporation under applicable U.S. state law (with some slight variations of corporate form based on particular state law requirements), and then operation as a tax exempt entity under a provision targeted at “business leagues” and other trade association-style enterprises. This provision, Section 501(c)(6) of Title 26 of the U.S. Code, generally enabled the organizations to avoid paying federal income tax, and often to avoid most state and local taxes as well. Selecting from hundreds of examples, some organizations that follow this model include ... LoRa Alliance Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Alliance grows to 500 members". Pacific Coast Business Times. 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  22. ^ "Member Directory | LoRa Alliance". lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  23. ^ "LoRa Alliance passes 100 LoRaWAN network operator milestone". Electronic Products & Technology. 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  24. ^ Gallivan, Joseph (5 January 2018). "Las Vegas Arrivals". Business Tribune. Retrieved 5 February 2020. The alliance is managed by the VTM Group in Beaverton.... Geoff Mulligan is the Chairman of the LoRa Alliance. He was a presidential innovation Fellow at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the Obama administration.
  25. ^ "Board, Chairs & Staff | LoRa Alliance®". lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  26. ^ "IoT Aims to Track Free-Ranging Reindeer in Finland - 2018-01-19 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
  27. ^ "IoT boost for Glasgow". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  28. ^ "Kerlink and YEAP! to Collaborate on the Rollout of First LoRaWAN IoT Network in Argentina". IoT Business News. 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  29. ^ "American Tower targets two million 2019 Brazilian LoRaWAN connections". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  30. ^ "Actillity and Levikom launch world's 1st "open value chain" LoRaWAN IoT network". Actility. 2017-02-15. Archived from the original on 2019-02-16. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  31. ^ "Holtek Announces Intelligent Fire Alarm MCU SIP Module Integrated with Semtech's LoRa® Technology - Product News - Holtek". www.holtek.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ Mu-Hyun, Cho. "SK Telecom launches LoRa-based fire detection solution". ZDNet. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  33. ^ "Practical Parking: PNI Sensor Corporation and Senet Roll Out LPWAN Solution". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  34. ^ "First black rhinos protected by sensor-implants in horns". IoT Business News. 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  35. ^ "Animal Conservation with LoraWAN - turtles, fish and more". Institute IRNAS. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  36. ^ "IoT is revolutionizing natural disaster prediction - IoT Agenda". internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  37. ^ Chin, Spencer (2018-12-05). "LoRA Technology Comes to Aid of Australian Cotton Farmers". Electronic Component News. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  38. ^ "SenRa and NAS Roll Out Remote Metering for Water & Electricity in India". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  39. ^ "Semtech Selected for Smart Irrigation System | San Fernando Valley Business Journal". sfvbj.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  40. ^ "LoRa Solution Offers Wireless View Into Soil Health - 2018-11-09 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  41. ^ "Spain pilots smart water technology". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  42. ^ "Dutch firm launches LoRa smart agriculture solution on Senet network". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  43. ^ "Calgary, Alberta unveils 4 new smart city initiatives". Smart Cities Dive. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  44. ^ "Orange has performed, within the Intelligent City Pilot project, the installation of a LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) network that covers the entire city". Alba Iulia Smartcity. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  45. ^ https://www.nnnco.com.au/news/article/city-of-gold-coast-to-build-australias-biggest-lorawan-network-with-iot-operator-nnnco/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • LoRa Alliance
  • LoRaWAN as wide-area, low-power, private IoT network
  • RAKwireless pioneer in LPWA connectivity solutions for IoT infrastructures and Edge Devices.