LoRa WAN

LoRaWAN

LoRa
LoRa Module with antenna and SPI wires attached.jpg
A LoRa module
Developed bySemtech
Connector typeSPI/I2C
Compatible hardwareSX1278
Physical range10km+

LoRa (Long Range) is a patented[1] digital wireless data communication technology developed by Cycleo of Grenoble, France, and acquired by Semtech in 2012.[2] LoRa is a long-range wireless communication protocol that competes against other low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) wireless such as NB-IoT or LTE Cat M1. Compared to those, LoRa achieves its extremely long range connectivity, possible 100km+, by trading off data rate. Because its data rates are below 50kbps and because LoRa is limited by duty cycle and other restrictions, it is suitable in practice for non-real time applications in which one can tolerate.[3]

Features[edit]

LoRa uses license-free sub-gigahertz radio frequency bands like 169 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (North America). LoRa enables long-range transmissions (more than 10 km in rural areas) with low power consumption.[4] The technology is presented in two parts: LoRa, the physical layer and LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network), the upper layers.

LoRa is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technology, and is the first low-cost implementation of chirp spread spectrum for commercial usage.[5] In January 2018, new LoRa chipsets were announced, with reduced power consumption, increased transmission power, and reduced size compared to older generation.[6]

LoRa devices have geolocation capabilities used for triangulating positions of devices via timestamps from gateways.[7]

LoRa and LoRaWAN permit long-range connectivity for Internet of Things (IoT) devices in different types of industries.[8]

LoRa PHY[edit]

The LoRa physical layer protocol is proprietary; therefore, there is no freely available official documentation. However, several people have analyzed it and documented their findings and Semtech has provided an overview of the modulation and other relevant technical specifications.[9][10]

LoRa uses a proprietary spread spectrum modulation that is similar to and a derivative of Chirp Spread Spectrum modulation (CSS).[11] This allows LoRa to trade off data rate for sensitivity with a fixed channel bandwidth by selecting the amount of spread used (a selectable parameter radio parameter from 7 to 12). This spreading factor determines the data rate and dictates the sensitivity of a radio. In addition, LoRa uses Forward Error Correction coding to improve reselience against interference.

LoRa's high range is characterized by extremely high wireless link budgets, around 155 dB to 170 dB.[12]

LoRaWAN[edit]

Since LoRa defines the lower physical layer, the upper networking layers were lacking. LoRaWAN was developed to define the upper layers of the network. LoRaWAN is a media access control (MAC) layer protocol but acts mainly as a network layer protocol for managing communication between LPWAN gateways and end-node devices as a routing protocol, maintained by the LoRa Alliance. Version 1.0 of the LoRaWAN specification was released in June 2015.[13]

LoRaWAN defines the communication protocol and system architecture for the network, while the LoRa physical layer enables the long-range communication link. LoRaWAN is also responsible for managing the communication frequencies, data rate, and power for all devices.[14] Devices in the network are asynchronous and transmit when they have data available to send. Data transmitted by an end-node device is received by multiple gateways, which forward the data packets to a centralized network server.[15] The network server filters duplicate packets, performs security checks, and manages the network. Data is then forwarded to application servers.[16] The technology shows high reliability for the moderate load, however, it has some performance issues related to sending acknowledgements.[17]

LoRa Alliance[edit]

The LoRa Alliance is an association created in 2015 to support LoRaWAN protocol as well as ensure interoperability of all LoRaWAN products and technologies. This open, nonprofit association has over 500 members.[18] Some members of the LoRa Alliance are IBM, MicroChip, Orange, Cisco, KPN, Swisscom, Semtech, Bouygues Telecom, Singtel and Belgacom.[19] In 2018, the LoRa Alliance had over 100 LoRaWAN network operators in over 100 countries.[20]

Deployments of LoRa Technology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ EP2763321 from 2013 and U.S. Patent 7,791,415 from 2008
  2. ^ "LoRa, LoRaWAN and LORIOT.io". LORIOT. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  3. ^ "Limitations". The Things Network. 2019-02-18. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  4. ^ Ramon Sanchez-Iborra; Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Juan Ballesta-Viñas; Maria-Dolores Cano; Antonio F. Skarmeta (2018). "Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions". Sensors.
  5. ^ "What is LoRa and how does it work?". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  6. ^ "Powering IoT's Next Generation". electronics360.globalspec.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  7. ^ Fargas, Bernat Carbones; Petersen, Martin Nordal. "GPS-free Geolocation using LoRa in Low-Power WANs" (PDF). DTU Library.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Ram, Prashant (2018-08-07). "LPWAN, LoRa, LoRaWAN and the Internet of Things". Coinmonks. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  9. ^ Matthew Knight; Balint Seeber (2016). "Decoding LoRa: Realizing a Modern LPWAN with SDR".
  10. ^ Jesus Sanchez-Gomez; Ramon Sanchez-Iborra (2017). "Experimental comparison of LoRa and FSK as IoT-communication-enabling modulations". IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom'17).
  11. ^ "LoRa Modulation Basics" (PDF).
  12. ^ Mohan, Vivek. "10 Things About LoRaWAN & NB-IoT". blog.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  13. ^ Version 1.0 of the LoRaWAN specification released.
  14. ^ "LoRaWAN For Developers". www.lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  15. ^ "A Comprehensive Look At LPWAN For IoT Engineers & Decision Makers". www.link-labs.com. Retrieved 2017-06-22.
  16. ^ LoRa Alliance (2015). "LoRaWAN: What is it?" (PDF).
  17. ^ Bankov, D.; Khorov, E.; Lyakhov, A. (November 2016). "On the Limits of LoRaWAN Channel Access". 2016 International Conference on Engineering and Telecommunication (EnT): 10–14. doi:10.1109/ent.2016.011.
  18. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Alliance grows to 500 members". Pacific Coast Business Times. 2017-06-29. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  19. ^ "Member Directory | LoRa Alliance™". lora-alliance.org. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  20. ^ "LoRa Alliance passes 100 LoRaWAN network operator milestone". Electronic Products & Technology. 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  21. ^ "IoT Aims to Track Free-Ranging Reindeer in Finland - 2018-01-19 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  22. ^ "IoT boost for Glasgow". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  23. ^ "Kerlink and YEAP! to Collaborate on the Rollout of First LoRaWAN IoT Network in Argentina". IoT Business News. 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  24. ^ "American Tower targets two million 2019 Brazilian LoRaWAN connections". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  25. ^ "Actillity and Levikom launch world's 1st "open value chain" LoRaWAN IoT network". Actility. 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  26. ^ "Holtek Announces Intelligent Fire Alarm MCU SIP Module Integrated with Semtech's LoRa® Technology - Product News - Holtek". www.holtek.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  27. ^ Mu-Hyun, Cho. "SK Telecom launches LoRa-based fire detection solution". ZDNet. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  28. ^ "Semtech partners with Chinese bike-sharing company". Pacific Coast Business Times. 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  29. ^ "Semtech LoRa-based IoT Solution Saves 22% in Water Management". www.businesswire.com. 2018-09-12. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  30. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology and Senet's LoRaWAN-based Network Leveraged in Flood Sensors to Monitor Water Levels". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  31. ^ "Semtech and X-TELIA Implement LoRa Solution for Smart Bus Schedule Signs". www.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  32. ^ "Semtech-enabled HEX smart exit signs allow safe egress in a fire". FMLink. 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  33. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology Is Leveraged by Kiwi Technology to Develop Smart Cities in Thailand". www.semtech.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  34. ^ "Semtech's LoRa Technology Creates Smarter Streets in India". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  35. ^ "Practical Parking: PNI Sensor Corporation and Senet Roll Out LPWAN Solution". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  36. ^ "Chipsafer Connects Cattle Ranching to the Cloud with LoRa Technology". IoT Business News. 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  37. ^ "Beartooth and Semtech's LoRa Technology Provides Reliable Communication in Cellular Outages". IoT Business News. 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  38. ^ "First black rhinos protected by sensor-implants in horns". IoT Business News. 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  39. ^ "Animal Conservation with LoraWAN - turtles, fish and more". Institute IRNAS. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  40. ^ "IoT is revolutionizing natural disaster prediction - IoT Agenda". internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  41. ^ Chin, Spencer (2018-12-05). "LoRA Technology Comes to Aid of Australian Cotton Farmers". Electronic Component News. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  42. ^ "SenRa and NAS Roll Out Remote Metering for Water & Electricity in India". www.iotevolutionworld.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  43. ^ Staff, Circuit Cellar (2019-02-05). "Utility Metering Solution Taps Semtech's LoRa Technology". Circuit Cellar. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  44. ^ "Semtech Selected for Smart Irrigation System | San Fernando Valley Business Journal". sfvbj.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  45. ^ "LoRa Solution Offers Wireless View Into Soil Health - 2018-11-09 - Page 1 - RFID Journal". www.rfidjournal.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  46. ^ "Extending LoRaWAN to Receive Messages from Space". electronics360.globalspec.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  47. ^ "Spain pilots smart water technology". Smart Cities World. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  48. ^ "Dutch firm launches LoRa smart agriculture solution on Senet network". enterpriseiotinsights.com. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  49. ^ "Semtech Technology Underlies Comcast MachineQ IoT Service in 10 Cities - Telecompetitor". www.telecompetitor.com. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  50. ^ "Calgary, Alberta unveils 4 new smart city initiatives". Smart Cities Dive. Retrieved 2019-02-15.

Further reading[edit]

Lee, Chang-Jae, Ki-Seon Ryu, and Beum-Joon Kim. "Periodic ranging in a wireless access system for mobile station in sleep mode." U.S. Patent No. 7,194,288. 20 March 2007.